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Guidance from the World Health Organization

Women with COVID-19 can breastfeed if they wish to do so.
They should:

  •  Practice respiratory hygiene and wear a mask
  •  Wash before and after touching the baby
  •  Routinely clean and disinfect surfaces

BREASTFEEDING HOTLINES:

  • Michigan WIC: Call 833-MIWICBF or 833-649-4223. The phone line is staffed from 8 a.m. to 8 p.m. ET. 
  • Ohio: Call 888-588-3423. The hotline is available 24/7. 
  • Oklahoma: Call 877-271-MILK or text OK2BF to 61222. Urgent calls are returned 24/7, and texting is available from 8 a.m. to 8 p.m. ET.

To find local help with breastfeeding in Kansas, visit the Kansas Breastfeeding Coalition “Local Resources Directory

For General Breastfeeding Resources for Parents, visit http://ksbreastfeeding.org/resources/general-resources-parents/

Workplace Assistance:

NEW studies on COVID-19 and maternal/infant separation after birth:

Neonatal management and outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic: an observation cohort study – authors concluded that perinatal transmission of COVID-19 is unlikely to occur if correct hygiene precautions are undertaken, and that allowing neonates to room in with their mothers and direct breastfeeding are safe procedures when paired with effective parental education of infant protective strategies.

Maternal transmission of SARS‐COV‐2 to the neonate, and possible routes for such transmission: a systematic review and critical analysis – authors concluded that neonatal COVID-19 infection is uncommon, rarely symptomatic, and the rate of infection is no greater when the baby is born vaginally, breastfed, or remains with the mother. They also stated that they found no evidence that isolating the baby from the mother is beneficial if hygiene precautions are taken, and encouraging the baby to spend time with its mother is likely to help with breastfeeding and bonding.

Resources, Guidance & Recommendations:

Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine

ABM Statement On Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19)

Should Infants Be Separated from Mothers with COVID-19? First, Do No Harm

Breastfeeding and Respiratory Antivirals: Coronavirus and Influenza

American Academy of Family Physicians

AAFP Statement on Breastfeeding and COVID-19

The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing

Pregnant Women's Reports of the Impact of COVID-19 on Pregnancy, Prenatal Care, and Infant Feeding Plans. The article includes descriptions of how the COVID-19 pandemic has affected pregnancy, prenatal maternity care practices, and infant feeding plans among pregnant women in the United States. The authors emphasize the need for healthcare providers and policymakers to listen to the collective voices of women about how COVID-19 has affected their birth and infant feeding plans, and their perceptions of changes in prenatal care.

Carolina Global Breastfeeding Institute

COVID-19 Handling Expressed Human Milk (pdf)

COVID-19 Resources

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

The CDC recently released updated guidance on caring for newborns with suspected or known exposure to COVID-19. The Evaluation and Management Considerations for Neonates At Risk for COVID-19 guidance is intended to inform healthcare providers about managing neonates born to a parent with suspected or confirmed COVID-19. Updates to the guidance include new data regarding the transmission of COVID-19 to neonates, mother-neonate contact, and updated infection prevention and control measures.

Care for Breastfeeding Women

Breastfeeding: Information about Coronavirus Disease 2019

Human Milk Banking Association of North America

Milk Handling for COVID-19 Positive or Suspected Mothers in the Hospital Setting

Milk Banking and COVID-19

Why Donor Human Milk is an Essential Need During COVID-19

International Board of Lactation Consultant Examiners:

IBLCE Advisory Opinion on Telehealth

The International Lactation Consultant Association

Resources for Skilled Lactation Providers on COVID-19

Providing Lactation Support During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Q&A With Annie Frisbie, Practicing in New York, US (ILCA Blog)

Journal of Human Lactation

Safe Handling of Containers of Expressed Human Milk in all Settings During the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Pandemic

Lactation Education Resources

Resources for Lactation Supporters During COVID-19

La Leche League International

Continuing to Nurse Your Baby Through Coronavirus (2019-nCoV; COVID-19) and Other Respiratory Infections

Maternal & Child Nutrition

Experiences of breastfeeding during COVID‐19: Lessons for future practical and emotional support. The authors conducted an online survey of breastfeeding mothers about the effects of the COVID-19 lockdown on breastfeeding experiences in the UK. The authors found that some mothers felt that breastfeeding was protected due to lockdown, while others struggled to get breastfeeding support.

The National WIC Association

Breastfeeding and COVID-19 Guidance

UNICEF

Re-Lactation Guidance

U.S. Agency for International Development

Infant and Young Child Feeding Recommendations When COVID-19 is Suspected or Confirmed  - 10 Counselling Cards and a Recommended Practices Booklet, reflect the global recommendations from WHO and UNICEF (March 2020) on IYCF in the context of COVID-19

United States Breastfeeding Committee

Infant and Young Child Feeding in Emergencies, including COVID-19

COVID-19 and Breastfeeding Guide for Parents.

Statement on Pasteurized Donor Human Milk & COVID-19

U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)

Key Messages Related to Evidence on Transmission of COVID in Breastmilk. USAID The brief includes key messages on research related to COVID-19 transmission through human breast milk.

The World Alliance for Breastfeeding Action

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and breastfeeding

World Health Organization

Breastfeeding advice during the COVID-19 outbreak (infographics)

FAQs Breastfeeding and COVID-19 For health care workers (pdf)

Q&A on COVID-19 and breastfeeding

Other

Is it Safe to Provide Milk for My NICU Baby if I Have or Have Been Exposed to Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)?

¿Es seguro darle leche a mi bebé en la NICU si estuve expuesta o tengo la enfermedad por el nuevo coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19)?

Sample Informed Consent Form for Refusal to Separate Birthing Parent and Infant

American Academy of Pediatrics

AAP Perinatal COVID-19 Registry

Breastfeeding Guidance Post Hospital Discharge for Mothers or Infants with Suspected or Confirmed SARS-Co V-2 Infection. (Updated 29 July 2020).

FAQs: Management of Infants Born to Mothers with Suspected or Confirmed COVID-19 (updated 7/22/2020)

Critical Updates on COVID-19

Baby-Friendly USA

Coronavirus Update #2

California Breastfeeding Coalition

Shared decision-making tool  - step-by-step guidance for parents on making informed decisions regarding breastfeeding options and infection-prevention practices if exposed to or infected with COVID-19

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

The CDC recently released updated guidance on caring for newborns with suspected or known exposure to COVID-19. The Evaluation and Management Considerations for Neonates At Risk for COVID-19 guidance is intended to inform healthcare providers about managing neonates born to a parent with suspected or confirmed COVID-19. Updates to the guidance include new data regarding the transmission of COVID-19 to neonates, mother-neonate contact, and updated infection prevention and control measures.

Care for Breastfeeding Women

Pregnancy, Breastfeeding, and Caring for Newborns

Interim Considerations for Infection Prevention and Control of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Inpatient Obstetric Healthcare Settings

Infant Feeding in Disasters

Harvard Medical School

COVID-19: Separating Infected Mothers from Newborns: Weighing the Risks and Benefits

The International Society for Research in Human Milk and Lactation (ISRHML)

Webpage generated by a Working Group of ISRHML members to collate and summarize the rapidly evolving scientific evidence and clinical resources regarding the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), human milk and lactation.

Journal of the American Medical Association: Pediatrics

Outcomes of Neonates Born to Mothers With Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Infection at a Large Medical Center in New York City. The article concludes that during the COVID-19 pandemic, separation of affected mothers and newborns may not be warranted, and direct breastfeeding appears to be safe.

Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE)

FAQ COVID-19 for Pregnant Women and Infants (English)

FAQ COVID-19 for Pregnant Women and Infants (Spanish)

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) for the Perinatal and Infant Populations

National Perinatal Association

COVID-19

UNICEF

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19): What parents should know 

U.S. Agency for International Development

Infant and Young Child Feeding Recommendations When COVID-19 is Suspected or Confirmed  - 10 Counselling Cards and a Recommended Practices Booklet, reflect the global recommendations from WHO and UNICEF (March 2020) on IYCF in the context of COVID-19

U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service

FNS Program Guidance on Human Pandemic Response

World Health Organization

Breastfeeding advice during the COVID-19 outbreak (infographics)

Breastfeeding and Covid19 YouTube Video. (28 May 2020).

Clinical management of COVID-19 [Interim Guidance]. (27 May 2020).

FAQs Breastfeeding and COVID-19 For health care workers [20 questions & decision tree]. (12 May 2020).

Pregnancy, Childbirth, breastfeeding and COVID-19 [social media tiles]

Q&A on COVID-19 and breastfeeding

Guidance on the Use of Masks

Myth Busters

WHO Academy’s COVID-19 mobile learning app.

The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists

COVID-19 FAQs for Obstetrician-Gynecologists, Obstetrics

The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine

Outpatient Assessment and Management for Pregnant Women With Suspected or Confirmed Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19)

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

The CDC recently released updated guidance on caring for newborns with suspected or known exposure to COVID-19. The Evaluation and Management Considerations for Neonates At Risk for COVID-19 guidance is intended to inform healthcare providers about managing neonates born to a parent with suspected or confirmed COVID-19. Updates to the guidance include new data regarding the transmission of COVID-19 to neonates, mother-neonate contact, and updated infection prevention and control measures.

Care for Breastfeeding Women

Interim Considerations for Infection Prevention and Control of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Inpatient Obstetric Healthcare Settings

Sample Informed Consent Form for Refusal to Separate Birthing Parent and Infant

National Perinatal Association and the National Association of Neonatal Nurses

Mothers with COVID-19 and Their Newborn Infants – Issue: Shared Decision Making

World Health Organization

Breastfeeding advice during the COVID-19 outbreak (infographics)

Implications of the COVID-19 Pandemic Response for Breastfeeding, Maternal Caregiving Capacity and Infant Mental Health

Breastfeeding during the COVID-19 pandemic – a literature review for clinical practice

Breastfeeding mothers with COVID-19 infection: a case series

Mistakes from the HIV pandemic should inform the COVID-19 response for maternal and newborn care

Bibliography for “The COVID-19 Pandemic: Infant Outcomes and Feeding in this Emergency” presentation by Dr. Kathie Marinelli 9/16/2020 

Cochrane COVID-19 review of national clinical practice guidelines for key questions relating to the care of pregnant women and their babies. https://pregnancy.cochrane.org/news/covid-19-review-national-clinical-practice-guidelines-key-questions-relating-care-pregnant [pregnancy.cochrane.org]

Karen Puopolo, MD, PhD, FAAP, Chief, Section on Newborn Medicine at Pennsylvania Hospital, Member of the AAP Committee on Fetus & Newborn

Lackey KA, Pace RM, Williams JE, Bode L, Donovan SM, Järvinen KM, Seppo A, Raiten DJ, Meehan CL, McGuire MA, McGuire MK. SARS-CoV-2 and human milk: what is the evidence? doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.04.07.20056812 [doi.org] [preprint prior to peer review]

Kimberlin DW, Puopolo KM. Breastmilk and COVID-19: What Do We Know? [Published online ahead of print, 2020 Jun 21]. Clin Infect Dis. 2020;ciaa800. doi:10.1093/cid/ciaa800 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7337725/ [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Clinicians are asked to participate in the National Registry for Surveillance and Epidemiology of Perinatal COVID-19 Infection, which will inform future guidance. Register at https://redcap.ctsi.ufl.edu/redcap/surveys/?s=FY44J48D9F [redcap.ctsi.ufl.edu]

Salvatore CM, Han J-Y, Acker KP, Tiwari P, Jin J, Brandler M, Cangemi C, Gordon L, Parow A, DiPace J, DeLaMora P. (2020). Neonatal management and outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic: An observation cohort study. Lancet Child Adolesc Health. https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lanchi/article/PIIS2352-4642(20)30235-2/fulltext [thelancet.com]

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